Medium: radio waves over air | Pins used: 1 or 2

OverSampling strategy has been developed to enable a new software emulated simplex or half-duplex data link supporting one or many to many communication on a single channel or medium. It can be run on cheap and low performance microcontrollers, it supports communication for many devices connected to the same medium and stable operation in spite of interference. Its procedure has been specified to obtain long range and high reliability using FSK/ASK/OOK 315/433MHz radio transceivers available on the market. It complies with PJDLR v2.0 specification. Take a look at the video introduction for a brief showcase of its features.


MCU Clock Supported pins
ATmega88/168/328 (Duemilanove, Uno, Nano, Pro) 16MHz 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, A0, A1
ATmega16u4/32u4 (Leonardo, Micro) 16MHz 2, 4, 8, 12
ATmega2560 (Mega, Mega nano) 16MHz 3, 4, 7, 8, 9, 10, 12
ESP8266 80/160MHz D0 or GPIO 16, D1 or GPIO 5


  • Transfer speed: 202 B/s or 1620 Baud
  • Data throughput: 150 B/s
  • Range: 250 meters in urban environment / 5km with line of sight and ideal atmospheric conditions


Before including PJON.h it is possible to configure OverSampling using predefined constants:

Constant Purpose Supported value
OS_LATENCY Maximum latency Duration in microseconds (2000 by default)
OS_PREAMBLE_PULSE_WIDTH Transmission preamble configuration Duration in microseconds (0 by default)
OS_BACK_OFF_DEGREE Maximum back-off exponential degree Numeric value (5 by default)
OS_MAX_ATTEMPTS Maximum transmission attempts Numeric value (10 by default)

Pass the OverSampling type as PJON template parameter to instantiate a new PJON object. All the other necessary information is present in the general Documentation.

#include <PJON.h>

PJON<OverSampling> bus;

void setup() {
  // Set the pin 12 as the communication pin

  // Set pin 11 as input pin and pin 12 as output pin
  bus.strategy.set_pins(11, 12);

After the PJON object is defined with its strategy it is possible to set the communication pin accessing to the strategy present in the PJON instance.

Use OverSampling with cheap 433MHz transceivers

To build a real open-source PJON packet radio able to communicate up to 5km you need only a couple (for PJON_SIMPLEX mode) or two couples (for PJON_HALF_DUPLEX mode) of cheap 315/433MHz ASK/FSK/OOK transmitter and receiver modules (with a cost around 2/3 dollars each). Please be sure of the regulations your government imposes on radio transmission over these frequencies before use.

PJON Oversampling packet radioSTX882 and SRX882 ASK radio modules
Video introduction

The maximum detected range was experimented with a small packet radio transmitting its position every minute. The maximum range obtained was slightly more than 5 kilometers in line of sight in open area. Testing it instead in an urban environment the range is down to 250 meters. Two couples of STX882 and SRX882 were used as transceivers. If you choose these modules, remember to set HIGH the pin CS on the receiver before starting reception.

If using OverSampling, the asynchronous acknowledgement is suggested as acknowledgement mechanism because includes in the packet's meta-info a packet id, avoiding duplicated receptions.

Antenna design

Experiments in PJON_HALF_DUPLEX mode have shown that it seems better to keep isolated the two antennas, using two different, not connected elements to transmit and receive. The first suggested antenna design is a wide beam dipole antenna made by two 173mm (quarter wavelength) or 345mm (half wavelength) long conductive elements, one connected to ground and the other connected to the input or output pin:

173mm quarter wavelength / 345mm half wavelength


A more directional, compact and long range antenna design is the wip antenna. Can be easily crafted with two 173mm (quarter wavelength) / 345mm (half wavelength) long insulated wire sections wrapped with each other every 5mm, one is connected to ground and the other to the input or output pin. This design helps because of its strong ground plane, often necessary to have decent results with this sort of hardware.

        || 173mm quarter wavelength / 345mm half wavelength
GND   --\/\/\/\/\/\/\/\/\/\/\/\/\/\/\/\/\/\/\/\/\
RX/TX --/\/\/\/\/\/\/\/\/\/\/\/\/\/\/\/\/\/\/\/\/

Known issues

  • In older versions, OverSampling was affected by ineffective and short range if used in PJON_HALF_DUPLEX mode. This issue has been fixed by suggesting the use of pins part of 2 different port groups.

Safety warning

In all cases, when installing or maintaining a PJON network, extreme care must be taken to avoid any danger. Before any practical test or hardware purchase for a wireless OverSampling radio setup, compliance with government requirements and regulations must be ensured.

This document is automatically generated from the github repository. If you have noticed an error or an inconsistency, please report it opening an issue here