PJDLR v2.0

Invented by Giovanni Blu Mitolo
Preamble feature proposed by Fred Larsen
Originally published: 10/04/2010, latest revision: 31/10/2018
Related implementation: /src/strategies/OverSampling/
Compliant versions: PJON v9.0 and following
Released into the public domain

PJDLR (Padded Jittering Data Link over Radio) is an asynchronous serial data link for low-data-rate applications that supports one or many to many communication optimized to obtain long range and high reliability using ASK, FSK or OOK radio transceivers. PJDLR can be easily implemented on limited microcontrollers with low clock accuracy and can operate directly using one or two input-output pins.

Communication modes

The proposed communication mode is the result of years of testing and optimization for ASK/FSK radio transceivers and have been selected to be easily supported also by low quality hardware.

MODE Bit timing Sync bit timing Pad-data ratio Speed
1 512 328 0.64 202B/s - 1620Bd

Binary timing durations are expressed in microseconds.

Medium access control

PJDLR specifies a variation of the carrier-sense, non-persistent random multiple access method (non-persistent CSMA). Devices can detect an ongoing transmission for this reason collisions can only occur in multi-master mode when 2 or more devices start to transmit at the same time. When a collision occurs it can be detected by the receiver because of synchronization loss.

Byte transmission

Byte transmission is composed by 10 bits, the first two are called synchronization pad and are used to obtain sampling synchronization. The synchronization pad is composed by a high padding bit shorter than data bits and a low data bit. The following 8 data bits contain information in LSB-first (least significant bit first) order.

The reception technique is based on 3 steps:

  1. Find a high bit which duration is equal or acceptably shorter than the expected padding bit duration
  2. Synchronize to its falling edge
  3. Ensure it is followed by a low data bit
  4. If so reception starts, if not, interference, synchronization loss or simply absence of communication is detected

 _____ ___________________________
| Pad | Byte                      |
|_    |___       ___     _____    |
| |   |   |     |   |   |     |   |
|1| 0 | 1 | 0 0 | 1 | 0 | 1 1 | 0 |

Frame transmission

Before a frame transmission, the communication medium's state is analysed, if high communication is detected and collision is avoided, if low for a duration that is longer than the response time-out plus a small random time, frame transmission starts with an optional preamble designed to enable signal gain tuning and a frame initializer composed by 3 consequent synchronization pads followed by data bytes. The presence of the synchronization pad between each byte ensures that also a frame composed of a series of bytes with decimal value 0 can be transmitted safely without risk of collision.

 _________ ___________ __________ _______________ ______________
|Preamble |Pad|Pad|Pad| Byte     |Pad| Byte      |Pad| Byte     |
|_____    |_  |_  |_  |     __   |_  |      _   _|_  |      _   |
|     |   | | | | | | |    |  |  | | |     | | | | | |     | |  |
|  1  | 0 |1|0|1|0|1|0|0000|11|00|1|0|00000|1|0|1|1|0|00000|1|00|

When a frame is received a low performance microcontroller with an inaccurate clock can correctly synchronize with transmitter during the frame initializer and consequently each byte is received. The frame initializer is detected if 3 synchronization pads occurred and if their duration is coherent with its expected duration. Frame initialization is 100% reliable, false positives can only occur because of externally induced interference.

Synchronous response

A frame transmission in both master-slave and multi-master modes can be optionally followed by a synchronous response of its recipient, all devices must use the same response time-out to avoid collisions. The acknowledgment reception phase must be shorter than the response time-out to be successful.

Transmission                                              Response
 ________ ______  ______  ______                   ________ _____
|____    |------||------||------|-----------------|____    |     |
|    |   |      ||      ||      | LATENCY         |    |   |  6  |
|____|___|______||______||______|                 |____|___|_____|

The required response time-out for a given application can be determined practically transmitting the longest supported frame with the farthest physical distance between the two devices. The highest interval between packet transmission and acknowledgement measured plus a small margin is the correct time-out that should exclude acknowledgement losses.

This document is automatically generated from the github repository. If you have noticed an error or an inconsistency, please report it opening an issue here

The PJON protocol handbook

This is the first publication about PJON, it contains the documentation, the specification, many application examples and troubleshooting techniques. The book is made in Italy and within its 216 pages the whole PJON network protocol stack and its strategies are accurately described with graphs and color pictures. If you are interested in the PJON protocol and you would like a printed copy, pre-order an early version personally signed by Giovanni Blu Mitolo filling in the form below: